[语法大全]历年高考英语例句重难点及考点归纳

来源:《英语周报》      2020-01-31 21:26:35

  1. The words “gymnastics” and “gym” come from the Greek language, for it was in Greece that Olympic competitions started. (L.34)


  划线部分为强调句型,构成是“It is/was+被强调部分+that/who...”,被强调部分可以是句子的主语、宾语、状语(从句)等。注意:


  ①特殊句式:It was not until...that...;


  ②强调句型的一般疑问句和特殊疑问句。如:


  It was not until yesterday that I got your letter.直到昨天我才收到你的来信。


  Why was it that you did not attend the meeting yesterday?芽


  昨天你是出于什么原因没有来开会?


  [高考示例]


  It is the ability to do the job _____ matters not where you come from or what you are. (NMET2000)


  A. one B. that C. what D. it


  (注:斜体部分为最佳选项。下同。)


  It was because of bad weather _____ the football match had to be put off.


  (上海2003春)


  A. so B. so that C. why D. that


  2. There are a few simple safety measures to follow while training. (L.34)


  在含有时间、条件、让步、方式等状语从句的复合句中,若主从句的主语相同或者从句的主语为it ,且从句谓语部分含有动词be时,常可省略从句的主语和动词be。如:


  Fill in the blanks with articles where (it is) necessary.


  在必要的地方用冠词填空。


  Be careful when (you are) crossing the street. 过马路时要当心。


  Though (he was) defeated, he didn’t lose heart. 虽然被打败,可他并不灰心。


  [高考示例]


  Generally speaking, _____ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. (上海2003)


  A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take 


  D. when to be taken


  3. Training by yourself in a gym can be highly dangerous. (L.34)


  注意区分两种意义的副词:high高高地(指具体高度), highly高度地;非常地(抽象意义);close靠近,closely仔细地;紧密地;wide广大地;全部地widely广泛地;most最;非常,mostly大多数;大部分地;just正好;刚才,justly正当地;公正地; hard努力地;猛烈地,hardly几乎不;简直不;late迟;晚,lately近来;最近。如:


  Let’s unite still more closely.


  让我们更紧密地团结起来。


  This method of yours is highly scientific. 你的这个方法非常科学。


  The medicine is mostly sugar and water. 这种药主要是糖和水。


  He lives just round the corner.


  他就住在拐角处。

 

  [高考示例]


  It was raining heavily. Little Mary felt cold, so she stood_____ to her mother.


  (北京2002)


  A. close B. closely


  C. closed D. closing


  4.The first thing she did was go up to her trainer and thank her for all her help during her training. (L.35)


  go up to her trainer and thank her...为并列的两个不定式短语在句中作表语,其前省去了不定式符号to。注意: what引导的名词性从句作主语,或all, everything等后接定语从句作主语,从句谓语部分含有动词do或do的其他形式时,作表语的不定式常可省略不定式符号to。另外,表示并列关系的两个不定式,后一个不定式符号to常常省略,但当两个不定式表示对比关系时,不定式符号to常不可省略。如:


  The only thing you can do now is (to) wait for the bus.


  你现在唯一可以干的事情是等公交车。


  What you must do now is (to) ask the teacher for help.


  你现在必须去做的是寻求老师的帮助。


  All he did was (to) make others work. 他所做的不过是让别人干活。


  I like to criticize but not to be criticized. 我喜欢批评(别人)而不喜欢被批评。


  [高考示例]


  The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, _____it more difficult. (NMET1999)


  A. not make B. not to make


  C. not making   D. do not make


  5. Now...what was the name of the hotel he had stayed in the last time he was in Cairo?(L.38)


  the last time是名词词组用作连词,引导时间状语从句,意为“上次(做)……的时候”。the first/next time, the moment/ minute/ instant等名词词组也有类似用法。如:


  He was seriously ill the last time I saw him.


  我上次见到他时,他病得很厉害。


  I sent you the news the instant I heard it.


  我一听到这消息就立刻通知你了。


  [高考示例]


  I thought her nice and honest _____ I met her. (上海1998)


  A. first time B. for the first time


  C. the first time D. by the first time


  6. He held out his hand and stopped a taxi. (L.38)


  hold out伸出;维持; hold back 阻止;抑制(情感、情绪等);hold on等一下(不要挂电话);停住;坚持住;hold on to 抓住,抓牢(某人或某物);不把某物给予或售予他人; hold up举起;阻碍或延误(某人或某物)。如:


  The boss was unable to hold back his anger any longer.


  老板再也抑制不住怒火了。


  Road-works on the highway are holding up traffic.


  高速公路上的道路施工影响了交通。


  They managed to hold on until help arrived. 他们设法坚持住直到救援到来。


  We can stay here for as long as our supplies hold out.


  我们的供应品能维持多久,我们就能在这里呆多久。


   [高考示例]


  We thought of selling this old furniture, but we’ve decided to _____ it. It might be valuable. (NMET 2002)


  A. hold on to B. keep up with


  C. turn to D. look after


  7. The two men forced open the door of Room 411, broke off the chain and pushed... (L.39)


  1)force open意为“强行打开(门、锁、窗户等)”。类似的用法又如:tear open撕开;push open推开。


  2)break off是动副词组,意为“中断(谈话、通讯等);折断(树枝等);突然停止;暂停;断绝(关系);解除”等。如:


  She had left her key in the office and had to force the door open.


  她把钥匙忘在了办公室,只好强行把门打开。


  She tore open the letter and began to read it. 她撕开了那封信,读了起来。


  He broke off a piece of chocolate and gave it to me. 他掰下一块巧克力给我。


  She broke off in the middle of a sentence. 她一句话只说了一半就停住了。


  They have broken off their engagement. 他们已经解除了婚约。


  The door handle has broken off.


  门的把手断了。


  8. They turned round and stood in the middle of the room, completely astonished. (L.39)


  astonished是形容词化了的过去分词,意为“感到非常吃惊的”,在句中作伴随状语。英语中,形容词或形容词短语可以在句中用作状语,表示伴随、原因等情况。


  The thief hid himself in the corner, afraid of being caught.


  小偷躲在角落里,担心被人抓住。


  Easy to be with, he is warmly welcome. 因为平易近人,所以他深受欢迎。


  Every nation, big or small, should be equal. 国家无论大小,都应一律平等。


  Even more important, he is in charge of the project.


  更重要的是,他负责这项工程。


  [高考示例]


  After his journey from abroad, Richard Jones returned home, _____.


  (上海2004春)


  A. exhausting B. exhausted


  C. being exhausted


  D. having exhausted

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